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Today, the local computer network (aka LAN) has been widely used in offices, schools, offices, the Internet service at home even when you only have two computers to interconnected.

Introduction copper technology Copperten 10Gb / s

I. INTRODUCTION
Today, the local computer network (aka LAN) has been widely used in offices, schools, offices, the Internet service at home even when you only have two computers to interconnected.
However, you often do not notice the cable that connects the computer to the network because they seem very ordinary, nothing remarkable. In fact, the familiar cable network this seemingly simple technology contains many unexpected and interesting.

II. UTP CABLE COMMON USE OF THE NETWORK LAN
To connect the computers in the LAN Ethernet standard, it is most commonly used cable network called UTP (unshielded Twisted Pair) cable consists of multiple copper wires twisted together in pairs. The drawback of this type of cable is the distance and speed of data transmission.
UTP cable category is best known as UTP Cat-5, Cat-5e and Cat-6. The table below shows the data transfer speed up to 100M length of cables (for standard Ethernet network):


We found that UTP Cat-5 has stopped at 100 Mbps. UTP Cat-5e with the use of all four pairs of copper wires inside the cable transmission with standard frequency 100MHz to achieve 1000Mbps. And Cat-6 UTP cable has four pairs of lines used lead 1000 Mbps speed but increase the frequency from 100 MHz to 250 MHz bandwidth and should have the ability to transmit video signals to better Cat-5e cable.
Thus, in the standard Ethernet LAN which is now commonly used UTP copper cable, the data transfer rate up to 1000 Mbps only (or 01 Gbps). We also found that the speed is increasingly improved and each time been raised 10 times. So the next speed is 10 Gbps over copper UTP cable?
In fact, speed 10 Gbps data transmission is performed using optical fiber. For years, fiber has always led the race for data transmission speed. So why do many advantages, so far Optical cable can not completely replace the cable?


The answer is quite simple: it's high cost. What factors make the fiber optic cable at a higher cost:
+ The network device used to connect fiber optic cable to make the change from electric signals into optical signals for transmission to, and change back from the light signal into an electrical signal when received. Therefore, these devices would cost many times higher than the device used to connect UTP copper cables, which simply electrical signals.
+ Itself to manufacturing costs were also higher fiber by fiber optic strands are very thin pieces (9 micrometre), need to be very carefully protected, protected from light, water, dust, heat, cold, and dam ...
+ Connectors & Accessories higher cost fiber optic copper cable
+ Construction, optical cable connection also requires more stringent conditions for copper should also increase costs.

So it was back to the question: "Does the cable has reached its limit?" And wishes: "There can be fabricated copper cable transmission capacity up to 10 Gbps or not?". The answer is: maybe!


III. INNOVATION OF ADC KRONE: COPPERTEN
Obstacles and methods to improve speed
Come on surely you will wonder and desire to be answered: what prevents UTP copper cabling to achieve higher speeds? The answer will be right: there is signal interference. The current signal when run on a copper conductors at high frequencies (from 10 up to hundreds of MHz) will turn copper wire into the antenna emits pulses of noise, not the signal jamming in the inner cable but also cause interference to the other set of adjacent strands. This almost did not happen with cable for signal transmission is a light of channel is very high.
A central strand with six adjacent strands in the same bundle (tube) cable (network cable during construction).

The twisted pair of wires with the same step mutual interference of two adjacent strands.

Interference has weakened signal line and the signal can not reach the given distance. Thus the solution to achieve a speed of 10 Gbps is how to eliminate the pulse interference this. But to solve this problem is not as simple as its cause was born.
To better understand let's go back a bit with Cat-6 UTP cable. To achieve 1 Gbps speed it has raised the operating frequency to 250 MHz, while creating the fiber baffles inside to stretch the distance between the wire pairs to reduce the influence of the mutual interference between wire pairs. However, while controlling the distance between the pair of wires inside the cable sheath, people do not do this step with two pairs of twisted wire (position) in the same two adjacent strands.

A star-shaped bowels inside using UTP Cat-6 cable to increase and control the distance between the pair
Although it is possible to control the distance inside the fiber, but the gap between the pair similarities in the two adjacent cables is not guaranteed to remove noise.

In fact, it also conducted a further rejection by surrounding the metal casing for each pair shielded wires and all cables, this cable is also known SpsTP (Shieldedpshielded Twisted Pair) or PiMF (Pair in Metal Foil) . But it made for cable becomes too big, heavy and high costs, hindering the cable construction. That's not to mention the required cables plug type (plug) and socket (Jack) completely new, with standard RJ45 other commonly used, and as such does not guarantee compatibility with existing Ethernet systems . Therefore, the IEEE 802.3an Council has indicated uncoated copper metal is shielded cable for standard UTP 10G-BaseCX4 - transmission standard provides for 10 Gigabit Ethernet over copper.
Standard 10G-BaseCX4

To determine the transmission speed, the Council prepared using Shannon's law as a basis for decision. According to this law, to transmit 10 Gbps signal information, the UTP cable must be capable of transmission greater than 18 Gbps to ensure signal quality.
Transmission capacity greater than 18 Gbps to compensate the loss due to pulse crosstalk in fiber, pulse crosstalk between wire pairs, attenuation in the transmission equipment and along the 100 M cable length.
(The term "pulse crosstalk" (Crosstalk) about noise generated by the transmission line located too close to each other, from "cross-talk" was not related to audio. Significance stems from the fact you hear the sound on the phone regularly, which is the voice or whole other conversation in the background of your conversation).

Considering the ability to meet the standard 10G on UTP-BaseCX4 current IEEE 802.3an council concluded as follows:
+ Cat-5e Cable, 100 MHz frequency standards, do not meet the standard 10Gbit.
+ Cable Cat-6, 250 MHz frequency standard to meet up to 5 Gbps (while the request is> 18 Gbps).
While many research centers and manufacturers are currently testing the solution high-speed transmission, the ADC KRONE has successfully produced CopperTEN cable product line, and was patented in January 1/2003 in the United States. Until today, CopperTEN UTP cable is the only solution in the world that comes standard on the 10G-BaseCX4 distance of 100 M.
ADC KRONE has how?


A trial is set for cable CopperTen ensure greater transmission speeds Gbps 18 100 M cable length while maintaining normal size for cables.
In traditional design of UTP cable, each pair of wires are twisted together to eliminate crosstalk of each pair of wires (Crosstalk), and twisting of the four pairs of wires will be proportional differences to minimize resonance pulse all 4 pairs of wires interference. However, the actual construction of the cable pull cables usually go together in a cable duct, thereby generating crosstalk (crosstalk) between the cable twisted pair cable the same steps (located in closely spaced strands in tube) is inevitable.


To remove the maximum crosstalk pulses arise within and between the fiber strands together, ADC KRONE has to do the following:
1. Put a plastic inner core cable to control bowel and split up 4 pairs of wire to eliminate noise all 4 pairs of wires, similar to Cat-6 UTP cable. However, core plastic star was designed as caps on both the top face dimensions different hats.
2. Core Plastic elevation frontal larger diameter casing cable makes cables elliptical.
3. Plastic core for both continuous helix 4 twisted pair wire to.
The twisted pair of wires with shorter steps strains Cat-5e UTP cables and Cat-6 to reduce pulse noise at da.Voi such structured cabling, crosstalk within the cable has been removed due to significantly increased how and by twisting the wire pairs.

What is significant now that the fiber bundle CopperTEN by the plastic core is also the first step should twist cap core will collide during the length of the cable bundle, combined with elliptical and spiral cable will create gaps around. 4 pair hugged close to the center of the plastic core has rotated to create a transition effect between randomly. Thus the distance between the same pair of wires twisted steps (same color code) is guaranteed a certain value and the gap (distance) air is utilized to remove impulse noise.

The photo illustration cable will actually make you more easy to imagine:
CopperTEN has won the backing of the big names like Cisco, HP, Fujitsu ... Price cable lower optical fiber and only marginally better cabling Cat 6 a bit. CopperTEN use other types of connectors & RJ45 standard accessories so it is fully compatible with standard LAN cabling system present.


IV. CONCLUSION
With CopperTEN, transmission techniques have achieved a significant leap, ensuring data transfer speeds of Ethernet networks for many years. Hopefully CopperTEN will also be a suitable solution for your business in the near future.

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